Old Earth geological period, 359 to 299 million years ago, the second last period of the Paleozoic era; it was preceded by the Devonian and followed by the Permian.
The Carboniferous was distinguished by wide-spread tropical swamps in the equatorial Euramerican regions, and cooler tundra vegetation at higher latitudes. Common invertebrates included foraminiferans, corals, bryozoans, brachiopods, blastoids, crinoids, and cephalopods. Sharks and shark-like fish filled most ecological niches later taken by bony fish. On land, seed ferns, lycopods, calamites, and other plants were common. Insects and other arthropods were common and sometimes grew to huge size. Land vertebrates included labyrinthodont and leposopondyl amphibians and several types of primitive reptiles. The later half of the Carboniferous saw extended glaciation over Gondwana.
The largest Carboniferous recreation to date is the hyperturing Lycopods in the Mist Illuminated by the Sunrise lazurogenesis of an entire Westphalian D coal-swamp biome in the Aristophane system (Sophic League).
At the same time as the Carboniferous period was occurring on Earth, the Hov's'sa star-faring empire spread out from Rho Bentharis.