The study of how natural geological forces, and introduced nanecologies, individuals and societies, and megascale projects shape the surface of a planet.

Includes the study of how nanecologies, isolationist ai, and introduced biota, biont and aioid individuals and societies shape and organize the landscape and climate according to their needs. Various included and overlapping fields are population density and distribution, cityscapes, transportation, land and resource use, the impact of technology, feng shui, nano-development, local trade, and regional development.
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Development Notes
Text by M. Alan Kazlev
modified from the original write-up by Robert J. Hall
Initially published on 31 October 2001.