Old Earth to First Federation age religion practiced by people of Indian ethnic group; Henotheistic, usually panentheistic/monistic (or sometimes dualistic), believes in karma and the transmigration of souls, a cyclic universe, and the attainment of liberation (mukti or moksha) through knowledge, devotion, works, or yoga.
The influence of Hinduism is felt very strongly in the religious beliefs of many people in the Terragen Sphere in the modern era, especially in the Sophic League and Zoeific Biopolity, but also elsewhere.
Ahimsa - Text by M. Alan Kazlev Harmlessness; non-violence; one of the cardinal virtues of many religions and ideologies. Originally a Sanskrit word. The sanctity of life is embodied in the teachings of the Buddhists and Jains, as well as of many Hindu schools and in many religious sects and phyles throughout the Zoeific Biopolity and the Utopia Sphere. Asoka, the first Buddhist emperor (Old Earth Classical Age), particularly espoused ahimsa as part of the practice of dharma. Zoe of Hibbert herself - the forerunner of the Green and Blue Goddess - has said "all life is sacred".
Akasa, Akasha - Text by M. Alan Kazlev In Hindu and Tantric thought, cosmic space; the fifth cosmic element; the vehicle of mantra. In Theosophy and neotheosophy, the shining; ether, subtle, supersensuous spiritual essence which pervades all space, cosmic spirit-substance, the reservoir of being and of beings. In Nuage and neo-nuage thought, the substance on which the cosmic memory is imprinted; by reading this a clairvoyant is supposedly able to tap into past events - hence "akashic record".
Ananda - Text by M. Alan Kazlev In Hindu and Buddhist-based thought, transcendental bliss. According to Hindu Vedanta one of the three qualities of Brahman, the Absolute (the other two being Sat and Cit).
Atman - Text by M. Alan Kazlev In Hindu Vedantic (and especially Advaita) thought, the universal self or spirit, the individual equivalent of Brahman or Paramatman; the highest and only true aspect of every entity; pure consciousness. It is the realization of "I am," pure non-dual awareness, the "knower" or "witness" that does not vary in waking, dreaming, or dreamless sleep; the absolute or abstract idea of self, that indwelling divinity which is the same in every existing being.
Henotheism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev Worship of one god or archailect, while recognizing the existence of other deities. The high god does not absolutely control other gods, but rather is (depending on the religion, the worshippers and the orientation) a sort of paternal/maternal figure or master node.
Jivanmukta - Text by M. Alan Kazlev Originally an Old Earth Sanskrit word.  "Liberated in life"; a sentient being who has attained freedom from karma and samsara. Originally Hindu, the term is used in some ashrams and monasteries of the Sophic League, as well as among traditional old genome Indian near-baseline families in the Sol System and other old core worlds.  A toposophic (singularity) rank of the Sophic League, equivalent to the standard SI:1.  Term of address used for a Sophic League, posthuman or hyperturing.
Jnana Yoga - Text by M. Alan Kazlev One of the four spiritual paths in Hinduism; type of yoga where the means of toposophic ascent and/or attaining of union with the Absolute is by means of cultivating wisdom, spiritual insight, and intuition. Common in the Sophic League.
Karma - Text by M. Alan Kazlev Literally action, or the causes and consequences of action; that which produces change. In Hinduism, Buddhism, and the Sophic League, the linked cause and effect that is the principle of continued existence (samsara). Many esoteric memeticities reject the concept of judgment by a supernatural deity or capricious archailect in favor of a universal law or principle, by which one's previous actions result in an effect or reaction that preserves the moral equilibrium by compensating and adjusting all actions, excessive or defective. According to some theosophical and esoteric traditions, there are many types of karma, such as individual, family, clade, social, polity, empire, po, etc.
Karma Yoga - Text by M. Alan Kazlev The Yoga of Works. In Hinduism, one of the three traditional approaches to at-one-ment or union with the Divine; in this case by means of unselfish action or deeds. An important principle not only in the the Sophic League but among a number of other polities, especially monastic ones.
Moksha - Text by M. Alan Kazlev In hu (especially Indian Hindu ethnic) mysticism, liberation, release, transcendence of embodied existence. The Hindu equivalent term to Nirvana. Also called Mukti, Kaivalya, etc.
Samsara - Text by M. Alan Kazlev Popular Buddhist and Sophic term for embodied existence; the state of non-enlightenment. In a number of religions, especially some schools of Old Earth Buddhism and Hinduism (even up to the first Federation period), existence in the world was seen as an evil, and escape samsara meant completely withdrawing from embodied existence into quiescent nirvana. This is still advocated by some elements of Xenodharama, as well as by Neobuddhist Orthodoxy. In many traditions of Sophism however (especially those with strong Pozen elements), and among the disciples of the Reconstructed Nagarjuna, while samsara is to be rejected for sambodhi, sambodhi itself is not seen as an other-worldly state but as the complete actualization of existence in the universe.