During World War II he was instrumental in deciphering German messages encrypted by the Enigma cipher machine. After the war, he helped design computers, first for the British government and then the University of Manchester. During this period, he produced a body of work that helped form the basis of the newly emerging field of artificial intelligence; including the Turing test and the Turing Machine. He was arrested for homosexuality (still illegal at this time) and committed suicide shortly after. He is revered as an avatar, exemplar, or founder by some ai and cyborg clades.
Turing Test - Text by M. Alan Kazlev based on Anders Sandberg in his Transhuman Terminology Turing's proposed test for whether a machine is conscious (or intelligent, or aware): the subject communicates via text with the machine and with a hidden human. If the subject cannot tell which of their partners in the dialog is the human, then the computer is conscious (i.e. is an AI). Turing did not specify many key details, such as the duration of the interrogation and the sophistication of the human judge and foils. By the middle Information Age, computer AIs were regularly passing the test, although its validity remained a point of controversy and philosophical debate for some decades more.