An ai of baseline human equivalent intelligence and sapience. The first turinggrade AI machines were developed in the first century AT as the result of several different development paths, but were very naive entities when first constructed. At first turing-grade AIs were limited to physically large computer substrates, so were not mobile; the first fully mobile human-equivalent robots were not developed until many decades later.
Note that (except for an association with Atomic Age mathematician Alan Turing) this term is not related to the concept of the Turing Machine, which is an idealised concept in information technology describing a theoretical computer which manipulates symbols on an infinite strip of tape.
Sentience Algorithms - Text by John B and Pran Mukherjee The flow of steps which, when followed, allow an organized system to develop and maintain a degree of sentience. The underpinning of ai design. Required massive (at the time) neural nets or even more massive emulations thereof on hardware, state vector machines, and other information age new technology, being massively parallel (capable of running many many tasks simultaneously, or at least appearing to be able to do so to an outside observer.)
Turing Test - Text by M. Alan Kazlev based on Anders Sandberg in his Transhuman Terminology Turing's proposed test for whether a machine is conscious (or intelligent, or aware): the subject communicates via text with the machine and with a hidden human. If the subject cannot tell which of their partners in the dialog is the human, then the computer is conscious (i.e. is an AI). Turing did not specify many key details, such as the duration of the interrogation and the sophistication of the human judge and foils. By the middle Information Age, computer AIs were regularly passing the test, although its validity remained a point of controversy and philosophical debate for some decades more.