The extraction of mineral resources from an asteroid, planetoid, moon, or planet. Includes the extraction of particular types of resource, such as carbon, ice, copper, iron, aluminum, silicon, or uranium (very rarely fossil fuels, as these are limited to Gaian Type worlds). Various mining engineering methods are used, including SCMs, nanobore and nanomining, underground tunneling, and open-cut mining. Also important is knowledge about safety methods, demolitions, nano, micro, and macro replicators, resource extraction and transportation, one-sophont prospecting, miner living facilities, power supply, and environmental systems, geology, planetology, mass-drivers, pacman miners, and more. In some polities, the prospector or the mining operation is expected to restore the local environment to something of its original condition.