The final period of the Paleozoic era. Lasting from 299 to 251 million years ago, this was also known as the beginning of the Age of Reptiles. Pangea took its final shape, the great coal forests disappeared, the climate became more arid, and reptiles suplanted amphibians, gymosperms took over from pteridophytes, and more modern forms of insects appeared. The period ended with the largest natural mass extinction on Earth since the evolution of higher life-forms, and was followed by the Mesozoic Era.
During the late Federation and Consolidation periods a number of Permian parks and biospheres and terrainia were established and stocked with lazurogenic biota.