"It from bit."
- John Archibald Wheeler, Old Earth physicist
The Information Age was dominated by the attempts to formulate a Grand Unified Theory (GUT), constantly frustrated by the apparent inability to create a theory that included all known forces. The standard models were revised again and again, but always shown to contain tiny but measurable anomalies. Over time a paradigm of information physics replaced the previous "mechanical" view of fundamental physics: the universe consisted of information and interactions rather than matter-energy and fields. Using this formalism the search for the GUT could be extended enormously, thermodynamics and complexity theory were united with fundamental physics (Howani 2082 c.e./113 AT) and Kazan-Glass 2133 c.e./163 AT) and the underpinnings of entropy management necessary for large-scale nanotech were discovered. This proved enormously fruitful to theoretical physics, but practical applications were lacking and in the increasingly matter-of-fact culture dominated by applied science and the exploitation of the already more than revolutionary results of 1st century physics, the field slowly declined. By the 4th century, theoretical physics was mainly a pastime for AI aesthetes.
During the renaissance of the First Federation, interest in applying information physics blossomed, and thanks to the now mature nanotechnology it proved feasible to employ it in a variety of applications. The result was "photonanotech", although a more proper name would be quantum nanotechnology. It employed photonics, wave-properties of atoms, sculpted wave functions and quantum computation, extending the power of nanomachines and nanocomputation significantly.
Although photonanotech was not a conceptual breakthrough it encouraged and enabled more theoretical physics. During the middle federation era much effort went into the study of the properties of vacuum and how to control nuclear matter, and ongoing vacuum research produced some surprising developments.
- Bekenstein Bound - Text by Anders Sandberg in his Transhumanist Terminology
The upper bound of the amount of information inside a spherical region with a given energy. Information in this context is to be understood as distinguishable (quantum) states. Due to the uncertainty relations it is possible to derive a bound of the form
- Bremermann's Limit - Text by Mike Parisi
The maximum limit allowed for computation under the laws of physics.
- Consistency Theorems - Text by Anders Sandberg
The Novikov consistency principle states that the probability of a series of events leading to an inconsistent or paradoxical physical state (such as travelling back in time and killing ones grandfather before one's father was born) is zero. The consistency theorems of Wu, Lang, and Bauger proved this principle within the framework of information physics.
- Cybernetics - Text by M. Alan Kazlev and Stephen Inniss
In popular usage, the study of the creation of cyborgs through the use of dryware/hylotech such as mechanical, electronic, and bionic implants, augments, and neuroprostheses. In technical usage, the study of communication and control systems based on regulatory feedback, with application in a number of fields such as sociology, memetics, biology, engineering, artificial intelligence, and information theory.
- Extropy - Text by Anders Sandberg in his Transhumanist Terminology
A measure of intelligence, information, energy, life, experience, diversity, opportunity, and growth. The collection of forces which oppose entropy. See also Negentropism
- Information - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
A sequence of data that is meaningful in a process, such as the DNA code of an organism or the bits in a computer program. Information is the opposite of noise.
- Order - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
Information that fits a purpose, or is in some way teleological. In the evolution of life-forms, of memes, and of wild bionano the purpose is to survive and replicate; in an evolutionary algorithm or an ISOgenic sentient algorithm or aioid, the purpose is to solve the problem, or create an elegant or pleasing solution. More information or complexity or a higher toposophic grade does not necessarily result in a better fit, since a superior solution may require either more or less information, complexity, and toposophy. Evolution indicates however that the general trend toward greater order does generally result in greater complexity. Some archailect empires, such as the Negentropy Alliance and the Caretaker Gods, are, in different ways, greatly concerned that order be preserved and conserved.
- Plasma Processor - Text by Todd Drashner
Godtech level computronium node that uses high energy plasma and magmatter to perform computations and store data.