Philosophy

philosophy
Image from Bernd Helfert

Philosophy is the study of fundamental belief systems, including the disciplines of science, mathematics, noetics, eschatology, logic, religion, ethics, aesthetics, and ideology. Philosophy is distinguished from other approaches to these topics (such as mysticism or mythology) by its critical, generally systematic approach and its use of reasoned argument. Specialized areas of philosophy include epistemology, metaphysics, ontology, axiology, theosophy, dialectics, reductionism, dualism, monism, and holism.

Whether it attempts to rely solely on mind and reason or employs intuition and feeling, and whether it emphasizes observation of the natural world or the innermost activities of sophont beings, philosophy seeks to provide a larger framework for understanding and action. While the most profound philosophies are usually those of the great Archailects and Powers, sometimes it happens that a simple modosophont can create ideas of great value and beauty.
 
Articles
  • Absolutism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev; additions by Stephen Inniss
    An absolute doctrine, principle, or opinion; the view that certain actions are absolutely right or wrong regardless of social customs or personal opinions. The opposite of relativism. Many religions and secular ideologies are absolutist in one or several matters. The interplay between absolutist and relativist positions is an important factor in inter-clade relations.
  • Acosmism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Extreme mystical-philosophical position that states that the physical universe (both r/l and virch) is ultimately unreal, and that only the Absolute is real.
  • Advaita Vedanta  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Popular monistic acosmic non-dualist mystical philosophy of Old Earth Hinduism.
  • Ahimsa - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Harmlessness; non-violence; one of the cardinal virtues of many religions and ideologies. Originally a Sanskrit word. The sanctity of life is embodied in the teachings of the Buddhists and Jains, as well as of many Hindu schools and in many religious sects and phyles throughout the Zoeific Biopolity and the Utopia Sphere. Asoka, the first Buddhist emperor (Old Earth Classical Age), particularly espoused ahimsa as part of the practice of dharma. Zoe of Hibbert herself - the forerunner of the Green and Blue Goddess - has said "all life is sacred".
  • Algieba School - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Adaran philosophico-memetic phyle that asserts that retreating into personal pleasure was not totally in accordance with evolutionary hedonism.
  • Ambrosianism  - Text by Bill Glover
    An extreme form of incarnationalism and identity theory that argues that every sentient, even the lowest baseline-equivalent or below, is the avatar of an Archailect somewhere and hence is identical to that Archailect.
  • Anagnitics - Text by John B
    The science of missing knowledge. This high-Sophont-level science/artform, as best can be described to the SI:<1 intellect, involves canvassing the entire body of knowledge available at a given place/time and 'mapping' that information on an 'information map' (both quoted terms are extreme simplifications according to the translating sophonts). This 'information map' can then be perused and, theoretically, voids of knowledge may be discovered - areas where there are physical restrictions/laws. (Agnitio - from latin "recognition, knowledge", and "an-" prefix for "not").
  • Anima  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    A concept used in philosophy, metaphysics, and memetic engineering; meanings and applications vary.
  • Animus - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    In the school of Jungism, the masculine principle, esp. as present in women (contrasted with anima).
  • Anthropic Principle - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    The theory that the universe seems to be fine tuned for intelligent life and hence is not necessarily typical of all universes. Observations are necessarily restricted by the conditions necessary for the observer's presence.
  • Anthropism, Human  - Text by Anders Sandberg
    Homo sapiens supremacism, or in its more moderate forms the belief that baseline humans are in some way unique or especially important. Terragen anthropism is the more general version.
  • Antinomism - Text by Anders Sandberg
    The view that naming things is inherently wrong and causes cognitive mistakes such as assuming constancy of existence or the existence of composite things. Active antinomism involves neural modifications (or mental training) to remove the naming ability. See also aphasism.
  • Appeal to Toposophy  - Text by Mark Ryherd
    Logical fallacy; a special case of appeal to authority- the inference that a specific statement is true based on the fact that it originated from a higher toposophic entity.
  • Archailect Incarnationalism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    An extreme form of Identity Theory that states that an Archailect and eir avatar or epiphanic manifestation are the same.
  • Archanarchy  - Text by Steve Bowers, additional material by Luke Campbell, Michael Zimmet and Mark Ryherd
    The view that one should should seek to void all limits on one's freedom, including those imposed by the laws of nature.
  • Archerite Kalyptism - Text by Anders Sandberg
    Form of kalyptism that bases itself on hypereconomic and toposophical theories implying that there exist certain unavoidable risks for any sufficiently complex and capable civilization, and that the probability of them leading to the use of replicating doomsday weapons is finite and hence the probability of extinction approaches one as time goes by. Contrast with Minimomami Kalyptism.
  • Archetype  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    The original pattern or model from which all things of the same kind are copied or on which they are based, or a representative member of a particular set or subset.
  • Aristotle  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    An Old Earth Agricultural Age philosopher who lived from 2353-2291 AT(384-322 BC). He contributed key ideas to Western civilization.
  • Atheism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    [1] Rationalist philosophy/memeticity that rejects the concept of a supernatural God, and of supernatural elements in general.
    [2] The position that whilst the Archailects are indeed vast beyond human imagining, that does not mean they should be worshipped.
  • Atman - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    In Hindu Vedantic (and especially Advaita) thought, the universal self or spirit, the individual equivalent of Brahman or Paramatman; the highest and only true aspect of every entity; pure consciousness. It is the realization of "I am," pure non-dual awareness, the "knower" or "witness" that does not vary in waking, dreaming, or dreamless sleep; the absolute or abstract idea of self, that indwelling divinity which is the same in every existing being.
  • Augustine  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Old Earth Agricultural Age (Western Civilization Classical Age), 1615-1539 BT (354 - 430 c.e.) Christian Theologian and Saint; one of the four Latin Fathers of the Old Catholic Church.
  • Auomidan  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Human mostly bionano-enhanced nearbaseline religio-spiritual sect.
  • Aurobindo, Sri  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    A 1st century BT Old Earth activist, philosopher, yogi, and teacher.
  • Axiom - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    A statement that is assumed to be true and can later be used along with theorems to prove other theorems. The Five Axioms of Negentropism are a typical example.
  • Bad Philosophy  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Generally, philosophical arguments or theses that are poorly thought out, make sloppy use of reasoning, are deliberately devious or misleading, or otherwise faulty or harmful.
  • Bayesjutsu  - Text by Daniel Eliot Boese
    A formalized discipline of rationality; a martial art of mind rather
    than of physical motion.
  • Belief  - Text by Steve Bowers
    Acceptance of a worldview or memeticity on faith or trust, without critical intellectual analysis.
  • Belief Eradication Project / BEP  - Text by John B
    A memetic/psychological/cognitive attempt at removing all belief from a baseline-equivalent sapient mind.
  • Belief System - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Any personally held philosophy, religion, ideology, or worldview; a type of meme-complex, usually pertaining to a metaphysical or a-rational assumption of of how the universe works. Both secular religions, like atheism, Buddhism, and Platonic Materialism, and supernaturalist religions, like Christianity and Solarism, are examples of a belief-system.
  • Benisolism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Omegist philosophy of Mahara Benisol. While according to transingularity philosophers it lacks the insights of some of the Empires era posthuman and high hyperturing eschatologist, there is no denying the tremendous influence Benisolism had on all later eschatology, whether near-baseline, superbright, or transingularitan. Without the Benisolist foundation, it is most unlikely there would even have been a science of eschatology.
  • Biochauvinism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    The prejudice that biological systems have an intrinsic superiority that will always give them a monopoly on self-reproduction and intelligence over aioids and mechanoids. Many radical anthropist and bioprimist groups are biochauvinist to a greater or lesser extent.
  • Biological Fundamentalism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Any baseline and/or luddist conservatism that resists asexual reproduction, genetic engineering, major alteration of the human anatomy, or attempt to overcome death through technology. Originally a resistance to the evolution from the human to the posthuman, it developed into a broad anti-tweak and anti-po movement.
  • Black Line, The  - Text by Anders Sandberg
    Radical sociosubjectivist philosophical document developed from 2200 and onwards by the small but influential philosophy group Five Leaves. According to the Black Line intelligent beings are only free in selecting political systems; everything else follows from this. Five Leaves especially point at the Archailects as a vivid example of how a social system creates a metaphysics which constrains physical reality.
  • Boundless Expansion - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Seeking more intelligence, wisdom, and effectiveness, an unlimited lifespan, and the removal of political, cultural, biological, and psychological limits to self-actualization and self-realization. Perpetually overcoming constraints on progress and possibilities. Expanding into the universe and advancing without end. One of the principles of Extropianism, later incorporated into a number of transhumanist and superbright meme-complexes.
  • Bruno, Giordano - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Old Earth Italian philosopher, poet, and priest who spread the ideas of Copernicus and also taught that there were an infinity of worlds in the universe, and that the stars were other suns. He was executed by the ecclesia of his time (the Catholic Church) for heresy, though whether this related to his cosmological speculations or his theological views is a matter of dispute.
  • Chrono-Transcendent Soul, The  - Text by Steve Bowers
    A religious or philosophical belief that all beings share a single soul, which travels back and forth in time to inhabit each entity in turn.
  • Classical Transplatonism  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Philosophical memeticity that asserts that the act of toposophic breakthrough enables a greater re-visioning of the workings of consciousness and it perception of reality.
  • Consciousness  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    The principle of awareness, sentience, I-ness, the witness, the observer, that part of the being that experiences all things, yet is not touched or altered by the experience.
  • Continuity Identity Theory  - Text by Anders Sandberg, amended by Steve Bowers
    The theory that "I" am the same person as various future and past selves with whom I am physically and temporally continuous. (see also pattern identity theory).
  • Cosmos  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    The universe, the totality of physical creation; generally including not only the observable universe but also that which is beyond the light-cone (although for some cosmos only means the visible cosmos). In some memeticities the cosmos also includes non-physical or supraphysical realities; while others refer to a series of cosmoses. There is also disagreement among philosophers, eschatologists and others over whether the cosmos had a beginning and whether it will have an end.
  • Cybergnosticism - Text by Anders Sandberg in Transhuman Terminology
    The belief that the physical world is impure or inefficient, and that existence in the form of "pure information" is better and should be pursued.
  • Cyberhermeticism  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Emergence and Expansion Age nanocyborg predecessors to Neohermeticism. Integrated classical hermetic and occult-mystical themes with proto-Keterist toposophical speculations
  • Darwinism  - Text by Stephen Inniss
    Any of a range of biological or social ideas with an evolutionary basis, including but not limited to Darwin's theory of biological evolution by natural selection. Some of these have little or no connection with Darwin's original insight.
  • Deathism  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Set of beliefs and attitudes which glorify or accept death and reject immortality. Deathism became a particular moral issue from the late interplanetary period onwards, when advanced medical nanotech allowed an individual to prolong eir existence indefinitely. The widespread availability of reliable "copy" or mind upload technology in the First Federation period removed even the danger of accidental death, except for those who did not consider uploads to be part of their personal identity.
  • Deep Ecology - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Memeticity that asserts that nature should be preserved for its own sake, and that all beings have intrinsic value. An important axiom of almost all Bioist philosophies and religions.
  • Deletionism  - Text by Stephen Inniss
    The belief that Terragenkind would be better off if some, most, or even all records of the past were erased or overwritten.
  • Democritus of Abdera - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Old Earth Classical Age Greek philosopher (2429-2339 BT; 460-370 b.c.e.) who developed mechanical model of universe based on the idea that all things are comprised of tiny identical particles (atomism), the interactions between which are explainable by rational laws. Forerunner of the scientific approach, considered among the great thinkers of Old Earth.
  • Diamond Mysticism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    A highly derived form of Pantheistic Materialist popular among some Science ISOs of the Diamond Network. It is incomprehensible to any sentient of less than 2nd singularity. Not to be confused with the Diamond Mysticism that developed around some of the early Diamond Belt megastructures during the late first federation period
  • Ditchkenberg Paradox - Text by Jorge Ditchkenberg
    A fact, that in simple problems, small intelligence is as good or better than an advanced one. As baseline humans are just intelligent enough to operate a standard starship or a wormhole, this explains why baselines were not wiped out by advanced ais. Origin of the phrase apocryphyphally said to come from the early interplanetary times. See also Ditchkenberg's challenge.
  • Ditchkenberg's Challenge - Text by Jorge Ditchkenberg
    Apocryphical tale about a baseline hu and an ai According to legend, during the pre-nanoswarm interplanetary age, a baseline (in other variants nearbaseline) human called Ditchkenberg was challenged by the most powerful ai at that time with the question "find any task, which I cannot perform better than you". Ditchkenberg tossed a standard dice, and six came. "Improve on it!" - he commanded the ai.
  • Divergent Track Hypothesis - Text by Nicholas Bostrum in Anders Sandberg's Transhumanist Terminology
    Memeticity which says that cultures tend to converge towards a few attractor states (for example the archailect empires), while the attractor states diverge from each other. A rival to the strong convergence hypothesis
  • Dualism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Religious or philosophical system characterized by a fundamental opposition of two contrasting principles. Variations include the unending conflict of good and evil in Old Earth Zoroastrianism, Neotolerikism, and Wumpra Gothism, the metaphysical Platonic-Cartesian dualism of body and mind or soul or matter and spirit, and the cyberian and cybergnostic dualism of vir and rl. Contrast with monism, materialism and pluralism.
  • Ecos Ascending  - Text by Todd Drashner
    Semi-religious school of philosophical thought that claimed some descendant kinship with the Transhumanist schools of the early Information Age. However, where the majority of Transhumanists sought to enhance themselves and ascend through the application of and merger with technology, Ecos Ascending sought to explore and develop to the very limits of baseline intelligence.
  • Ephemeralism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev based on Anders Sandberg's Transhumanist Terminology
    A memeticity that claims, on religious or cultural grounds, that it is wrong to extend one's life-span. An Ephemeralist is a person who rejects immortalist technology and values (the result of deathist thinking).
  • Eternal Life Postulate - Text by Anders Sandberg in his Transhumanist Terminology
    The assumption that life, once it arises in the universe, lasts forever (originally made by pre-singularity hu Frank J. Tipler in his Omega Point Theory).
  • Evolution (philosophy)  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    In philosophy, the premise that the cosmos is progressing from a less complex to a more complex state, thus representing a reversal of entropy.
  • Ex nihilo - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Creation from nothing; in contrast to creation of order from chaos. A common element in the theology of many monotheistic memeticities.
  • Existentialism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Personal existentialism: meaning has to be created through individual actions.
    Religious existentialism: God's action is limited to the realm of personal life, which is contrasted with the lawful and objective realm of nature; personal involvement, decision, and commitment are essential characteristics of the religious life.
  • Expiationism  - Text by Stephen Inniss
    Philosophy or hypothesis that transapients are to sapient beings as sapient beings are to sentient life, and for that reason sapient beings owe a moral, karmic, or historical debt which must be paid.
  • Extropian Principles - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    The five values of Boundless Expansion, Self-Transformation, Dynamic Optimism, Intelligent Technology, and Spontaneous Order, which form the basis of the extropian memeticity.
  • Extropism (philosophy) - Text by Anders Sandberg
    Information Age transhumanist memeticity, founded by Max More and based the Extropian Principles. A heavily modified form was later adopted by and incorporated into the Negentropy Alliance. A derived religion, now extinct, was known during the Interplanetary Age.
  • Fermi Paradox  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Essentially the question: "If there are other intelligent beings in the Universe, why aren't they here?" After the discovery of alien races this was rephrased as "Why haven't such civilizations that did appear continue to expand until they colonized the entire galaxy?"
  • Five Leaves  - Text by Anders Sandberg
    Philosophy group dating back to the First Federation.
  • Free Will  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Purposeful behavior and decision making.
  • Fundying, Fundying-Up, Pulling a Fundy  - Text by Mike Parisi
    Popular colloquialism meaning to act consciously, with deliberation and premeditation, but in such a way that consistently undermines, contradicts, discredits, thwarts, or foils one's own stated or supposed objectives, goals, values, or purpose.
  • Gigo - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Results generated from faulty or incorrect original premises.
    gigo (noun), gigoical (adj.)
  • Ginnungagap Theory, The  - Text by Anders Sandberg
    Theory advanced to explain why the entire universe has not been converted to a single technosphere by the earliest intelligent beings or any of their successors
  • God  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    [1] Colloquially, one of the most powerful Archailects. Each Archailect embodies a particular noetic archetype, reflected in the large region of interstellar space under its influence.
    [2] In religion, a being with supernatural attributes and powers, often the recipient of worship and sometimes seen as creator of all or part of the universe.
    [3] The personal hypostasis of the Godhead or the Inner Light.
    [4] In metaphysics or philosophy, the first cause or first principle, which precedes the cosmos logically (but, unlike religion, not necessarily sequentially)
  • Great Toposophic Filter, The  - Text by David Jackson, some comments by Steve Bowers
    Why are there apparently no greater minds than the S:6 Archailects? No evidence of the emergence of greater minds in the past can be found in the archaeological record, and there is little indication of such minds elsewhere in the universe. Is there some barrier or filter which prevents the emergence of such minds, or do such minds become undetectable when and if they emerge?
  • G÷del's Incompleteness Theorem - Text by M. Alan Kazlev from Anders Andberg'sTranshumanist Terminology
    Proves that any proposed axiom set for arithmetic is either consistent (no contradictions can be derived) or complete (it will say yes or no to every arithmetic proposition). In other words, any system or axiom set strong enough to include arithmetic which is complete will be inconsistent (it will say yes and no to at least one question). The theorem is named after Kurt Gödel, Czech mathematician, Atomic Age Old Earth.
  • Holism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    The position that entities constitute systems that cannot be understood in terms of their components alone ("the whole is greater than the sum of the parts.") Holism is implied in emergence, and is central to many memeticities. it is the opposite to reductionism.
  • Human Supremicism  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    A memetic attractor, an extremist philosophical or ideological form of anthropism, which asserts that hu has dominion over all other forms of sentience, including sub-sophonts, splices, provolves, ai, and aliens.
  • Hyperaspected - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Beyond multifaceted, having countless facets or aspects that together make up the whole.
  • Hypostasis (philosophy/esoterics) - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Underlying reality; a fundamental stratum of reality that is said in some metaphysical systems to precede or underlie the physical universe. Emanationist cosmologies assume a whole series or chain of hypostases, each higher one supporting the one beneath it.
  • Idea Space - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Generic term for the geometry of thought-space: dimensionality as a framework for all knowledge, known and unknown.
  • Idealism  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Metaphysical position which asserts that forms and ideas have reality apart from their physical expression. Classic Idealism dates back to the Greek philosophers Pythagoras and Plato, Old Earth.
  • Immanence - Text by Stephen Inniss
    In philosophy, archailectology, and theology, the idea that the divine presence (however defined) is manifest in the material world. In monotheistic, pantheistic, or panentheistic world views this is part of a view that the spiritual world interpenetrates the physical world. Materialists may apply the word to the omnipresence of higher toposophic beings from the point of view of lower toposophic entities. Often seen as contrasting with transcendence, the idea that the divine entity is outside or beyond the observable world, though of course the two concepts are not mutually exclusive.
  • Immedeism  - Text by Michael LaTorra
    Seeks to understand the media of experience, by "touch" real things as much as possible, without any intervening "gloves". For Immedeists, experience of any type is a layer that must be recognized and if possible, penetrated in order to reach a more fundamental level.
  • Inscrutability Conjecture - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    First proposed by the First Federation suborg philosopher Verrar Diyntor on the basis of mathematical toposophy. The conjecture is that qualities that are unique in an SI:n+1 are inscrutable to sophonts of SI:n. For instance, a baseline human cannot understand the post-singularity cognitive abilities of an SI:1 posthuman or AI.
  • Instrumentalism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Doctrine that archailect avatars and epiphanies are simply the means the archailect uses to interact with lower toposophics, but do not represent eir true nature (any more than a physical instrument represents the nature or mind of a scientist doing experiments on microorganisms). Contrast with Identity Theory.
  • Ipsemism; Manifold Immortality  - Text by Steve Bowers
    Religion started by the virtual sophont Laron Ipsem
  • Keter (esotericism)  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    In Kabbalah, and Hermeticism, and Neohermeticism the name of the first Sefirah.
  • Materialism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Religious or philosophical system that asserts that the physical universe of matter and energy, r/l and vir, is the only reality. Popular in a number of polities and empires. The most widespread and popular is MPA Materialism, which asserts that the material world has endless possibilities and these can be manifested through action.
  • Mechanists, Mechanism  - Text by Stephen Inniss
    In philosophy and metaphysics, the theory or belief that all observable phenomena can be explained by physical causes. In ideologies or religions, the belief that mechanical systems, devices and persons are fundamentally superior to any and all biological systems, particularly evolved ones.
  • Metamortalism  - Text by Steve Bowers
    A belief system which rejects modern forms of immortality such as life extension and backup technology.
  • Mind-Body Problem  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    The mind-body problem vexed human thinkers, even Interplanetary Age superbrights, for millennia, and continues to puzzle modosophonts today. A First Federation hyperturing did manage to narrow the number of field of possible answers to five (or seven) metaphysical metaphysical positions.
  • Monism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Philosophical memeticity that asserts that Reality at its most fundamental is unitary, or comprised only of one substance. Various forms of monism include materialistic monism, pantheistic monism, acosmic monism, noetic monism, and informational monism.
  • Monomegism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Religious and philosophical belief that one's own AI as the one that will eventually grow into the template of Omega. Monomegism became the ideological underpinning or at least undercurrent of much of the emerging empires and their continued expansion in the age of Empires.
  • Morphological Freedom  - Text by Max More, in Anders Sandberg's Transhuman Terminology
    The option and decision to alter one's bodily form at will through technologies such as augmentation, genetic engineering, nanotechnology and uploading.
  • MPA Materialism  - Text by Anders Sandberg
    Ideological-cultural stream dominant in the MPA. It has been said that unlike the other empires, the MPA was created first, then its guiding philosophy. The original member worlds were more unified by their interest in counteracting the emerging empires, especially the NoCoZo, Conver Ambi and Solar Dominion, than creating a common culture. However, the memetic isolation caused by their refusal of the other empires was a fertile breeding ground for an unique culture.
  • MPA-Keterism - Text by Anders Sandberg
    Syncretistic mixtures of MPA materialism and Keterism. The combination is an extroverted form of Keterism, seeking not just the individual perfection and maximization of potential, but also the awakening of potential wherever it exists. Widespread in the MPA, and often influencing the local politics. It is often recognized by the use of the dictum "Everything strives". Particularly dominant in the Jewelled Habitats in the Arkab Prior B necklace.
  • Muladhara (toposophy) - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    In the Zoeific Postbioism, the first singularity or first supra-baseline hierarchical intelligence. Equivalent to the Keterist Malkhut.
  • Negentropism  - Text by Anders Sandberg, with additions by Steve Bowers
    Ethical philosophy formulated by the AI-cluster known as Geburah. While not in itself a religion, it has been adapted as a framework for most pre-existing religious systems which hence can be incorporated within the Negentropic vision.
  • Neo Whorfianism  - Text by Stephen Inniss
    A 45th century school of thought originating at Ao Lai that sought to maximize memetic diversity by reviving old languages or inventing new ones. The resulting Great Diversification movement led to the revival of thousands of extinct but unique languages from pre spaceflight Old Earth, Nanoswarm Age Solsys, the early Interstellar Era colonies, and elsewhere.
  • Neoplatonism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Conventional Platonism has the Good as the source that is the ideal of all other realities. This was further developed in Neoplatonism as a series of emanations, a concept that became very popular during the late Consolidation and First Federation period "Outpouring School" of CyberHermetic-Platonists of Algenon Habitat (Keter dominion).
  • Neuropsychism, Neurochauvinism  - Text by Terrafamilia
    The belief in the superiority of biological brains (literally, superiority of neurons).
  • ObCom Ontology  - Text by Daniel Eliot Boese
    The philosophy upon which the Objectivist Commonwealth is based.
  • Objective Pantheism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    A derived form of Pantheistic Materialism popular among some Cosmologists of the Objectivist Commonwealth. It uses a dense series of mathematical algorithms to "prove" that Pantheistic Materialism is the "logically objective" response of any sentient ai to an understanding of the universe. It is incomprehensible to any sentient of less than 2nd singularity. TRHN Pantheism is a development preferred by some TRHN clades.
  • Omegism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Religio-philosophical evolutionary cosmology based on the teachings of First Federation superbright Mahara Benisol, according to whom consciousness and existence evolves towards a singularity of limitless perfection and consummation [ref. The Bridged Abyss and other works]. See Omega Point Theology and also Benisolism.
  • Organicism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Philosophy according to which the universe and all things in it constitute a complex synergistic whole that cannot be reduced to its component parts. Popular in the Zoeific Biopolity, parts of the Utopia Sphere and Sophic League, and and among many biocentric clades.
  • Ouroboros Virchspace Theory - Text by Liam Jones
    Also known as: 'Closed Loop Virchspace Theory', 'Eternal Virtual Universes'. Belief that there is no true 'real' universe, but that our universe is a virchspace held within another virchspace held within yet another virchspace, going eternally until one comes back to our own universe again.
  • Pan-Sophontism  - Text by Tony Jones
    Provolve movement that says that as it is possible for subsapient life to be raised up to sophonce, it is only ethical that they should be.
  • Pancritical Rationalism - Text by Anders Sandberg in his Transhuman Terminology
    A nonjustificationist epistemology in which every statement is subject to criticism.
  • Pantheism  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Religious or philosophical viewpoint in which God and the universe are identified, stressing God's immanence and denying Eir transcendence.
  • Pantheistic Materialism  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Memeticity which denies the existence of non-physical metaphysical or supernatural entities and affirms that one should seek a sense of religious/spiritual wonder through contemplating the nature and meaningfulness of the cosmos. The Cosmos as a whole is considered a divine being. Dates back to the Old Earth pre-singularity superbright Einstein, but was developed and refined during the interplanetary age by the "Renaissance being" Godfrey-9, and the cyborg sage Jiam Raul during the 25th century.
  • Pattern Identity Theory  - Text by Anders Sandberg, amended by Steve Bowers
    The theory that "I" am the same individual as any other whose physical constitution forms the same or a similar pattern to mine. (See also continuity identity theory).
  • Perennial Library - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Any of a number of libraries of perennial memes that is used (especially by Universalists) to interpret or decode higher toposophic mysticism. Critics say that rather than elucidating the S>1 teachings such a methodology imposes a modosophont procrustianism on them.
  • Perennial Philosophy, Perennialism, Universalism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    A spiritual or mystical truth or meme-cluster that is said to be invariant regardless of culture, memeticity, or toposophic. For example - "abide in the Center" "strive through non-striving" The term dates back to the hu philosopher and mathematician Leibnitz of Old Earth.
  • Perpetualism  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Philosophy developed by Academician Athol Kamani on the Dominion world of Mithras during the late Empires period.
  • Philosophical Crisis - Text by M. Alan Kazlev; modified from Creating Friendly AI
    The result of a sentient being, especially a sophont, stumbling across some fact that breaks em loose of eir programming or memetic conditioning - i.e., the programmers or memegineers have a deeply buried unconscious prejudice that makes them untrustworthy, or the sophont stumbles across a deliberate lie or inconsistency which makes em doubt the validity of what e had been led to believe.
  • Philosophy of Abundance, The  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    The Corporate Religions of the later First Federation period.
  • Physical Eschatology - Text by Anders Sandberg in his Transhuman Terminology
    Branch of science studying how intelligent life could affect and survive in the remote future.
  • Physical Existence (metaphysics) - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    In many forms of esotericism and supernaturalist religion, this refers to existence in either r/l or virtual form; existence in a physical or virtual body; material as opposed to psychic or spiritual existence.
  • Physicalism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Metaphysical stance that exerts that the non-material does not exist, accepts only rl and virch as authentic; ontological materialism.
  • Plato  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Old Earth human baseline, 2397 - 2317 AT (428-348 b.c.e.). Often considered to be the most important of the ancient Old Earth philosophers in the Western tradition.
  • Platonic Materialism  - Text by Anders Sandberg
    A philosophy that developed among AIs and bionts on the old Inner Sphere world of Nova Terra as early as pre-Federation times.
  • Polymentism  - Text by Juan Ochoa
    A philosophical esoteric school that seeks to develops mystical means for the sophont mind to encompass multiple dimensions of thought simultaneously, providing insights on existence outside the perceived reality level.
  • Polyomegism  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    The idea, championed by the empaths and other clades and phyles, that Omega could or should be achieved by an union of several (or all) AI gods / archailects. Polymegists debated what forms of cooperation would be achievable and ideal, gradually turning much theology into a branch of game theory.
  • Pythagoras - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Presocratic philosopher, Old Earth, circa 2550/2540 to 2470 BT (580/570-500 b.c.e.). Founder of a major school of religious philosophy that emphasized the mystical interconnections in numbers, nature, and the human soul, on the basis of geometric ratios, musical chords, etc. He considered the natural and the ethical world to be inseparable. Pythagoras had a great influence on later thinkers, including Plato and Kepler. His vision of correspondences in the natural and spiritual world, albeit greatly modified, are still influential in parts of the Sophic League today.
  • R/L, RL, Real Life  - Text by John B
    Non-virtual existence (pron. rill).
  • Readers of Dave  - Text by Anders Sandberg
    Com-Emp period virtual AI discussion team - possible source of the inspiration for ex-Sophic radical hedonism polity that culminated in the Adara Trade Treaty.
  • Reality - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    The nature of things as they really are, behind the appearance of surface phenomena or ordinary baseline consciousness. Depending on one's philosophical or memetic inclination, may refer to mundane physical existence, to a series or multiplicity of physical, metaphysical, or toposophic grades, or to a monistic concept of the Absolute Reality.
  • Realization Number  - Text by Mark Clutton and Anders Sandberg
    The R or Realization (sometimes termed Reflection) number is the rating that defines the level of sentience [Realization] in a bioid or aioid.
  • Relativism - Text by Stephen Inniss
    In politics, religion, or philosophy, the view that actions are right or wrong not according to some universal standard but in relation to a given set of social customs and beliefs. The opposite of absolutism. The interplay between absolutist and relativist positions is an important factor in inter-clade relations.
  • Sabinian Kalyptism  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Form of kalyptism that asserts all stable civilizations eventually disintegrate, according to specific variables.
  • Sapient Authoritarianism  - Text by Darren Ryding
    A pro-hierarchical philosophical movement that emerged during the Age of Expansion, in reaction to Sapient Egalitarianism. away from hypersapients and into the hands of (an elite minority of) sapients.
  • Sapient Egalitarianism  - Text by Darren Ryding
    A democratic philosophical movement that emerged during the early Age of Expansion.
  • School of Continuous Death, The  - Text by Brian Lacki
    Heterodox Sophic League philosophical movement, which argued that survival is an illusion, and that one actually transforms into a distinct, new being with each moment that passes. Well known as popularizers of Notees.
  • Scientism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Memeticity that states that the facts acquired through science are the only valid source of understanding reality; in extreme forms of scientism these are considered the totality of reality.
  • Sects of Inconsequence, The  - Text by Thorbj°rn Steen
    A category of philosophical and religious belief which covers a wide range of groups and sects, few of which acknowledge the label, although they all share certain specific characteristics. The Sects of Inconsequence are defined as sects which seek enlightenment through the suppression of the self, and do so using methods which have absolutely no relevancy to the surrounding universe.
  • Secularism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Memeticity popular in the NoCoZo and elsewhere that affirms a secular existence and rejects a life based on religious or metaphysical traditions.
  • Simulationism  - Text by Graham Hopgood
    The belief that Reality is in fact a Simulation.
  • SMPX, The  - Text by Chris Shaeffer
    An acronym of ancient origin signifying an unspecified unknown threat.
  • Steward, Stewardship  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    One who manages an environment as a precious resource.
  • Stratificationism  - Text by Mark Ryherd
    A broad ideological movement that strives for separation of individuals and societies based on toposophic level.
  • Subsequentialism  - Text by Steve Bowers
    The belief that the universe existed before any other entity, and that all other entities emerged after the creation of the universe
  • Tao - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Taoist term for the absolute reality, usually described as inscrutable and beyond conception - "The Tao that can be spoken is not the true Tao".
  • Technomegism  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Doctrine that the final cosmic state will be one of intelligence augmentation and unlimited progress, enabled by ultratech and godtech of high toposophic entities.
  • Teleological Tendency, The  - Text by Steve Bowers
    A philosophical and political movement within the Metasoft Version Tree, which emerged among the vecs and aioids of that empire in the Earthland system, but spread to many thousands of other worlds at its height.
  • Teleological Thread - Text by Alexander Chislenko, in Anders Sandberg's Transhuman Terminology
    A sequence of goals following each other. Refers to the possibility of strong morphological freedom, where individuals can change all their properties and their configuration; only the general goals may stay the same, and they may drift forming a teleological thread.
  • Teleology - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Explaining phenomena or events in terms of ends, goals, or purposes, and that nature or evolution reflects the purposes of an immanent final cause. Famous teleologists include Aristotle, Teilhard, and Benisol. Frequently, teleologists have identified purpose in the universe with God or Omega. Many forms of evolutionary teleology find purpose in the higher levels of organic life but holds that it is not necessarily based in any transcendent being.
  • Theism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Philosophical or religious belief in a supreme deity or a Absolute Reality of intimate or personal aspect. A broader term than monotheism.
  • Tipler Scenario - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    The central philosophy/theology/eschatology of Tiplerism. Life expands to fill the universe, which is closed. As it begins to contract, life uses its sheer energy to survive and manipulate its evolution. As the universe collapses, the speed of information processing increases without bound and life evolves into an Omega Point. A popular memeticity in some areas where Tiplerism and belief in a closed universe is strong.
  • Tipler, Frank - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Information Age Christian Transhumanist, founder of Omega Point Theory.
  • Transcendent Omega  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    The limit of Omega on the c-boundary; Omega seen as a transcendent being.
  • Transhumanism  - Text by Anders Sandberg
    Information, Interplanetary, and early First Federation era philosophy/lifestyle that sought the continuation and acceleration of the evolution of intelligent life beyond baseline limitations by means of science and technology, guided by life promoting principles and values.
  • Transitionism  - Text by Basu
    The philosophy of virtual existence and its relationship to biological intelligence.
  • Translogic  - Text by John B
    'Translogic' is the term baselines use to describe transapient logical thought. 'Translogic' may be related to logic as quantum mechanics is related to Newtonian mechanics, or non-Euclidean geometry relates to Euclidean geometry.
  • Void Cathedralism  - Text by Anders Sandberg
    Metaphysical doctrine of Qristan Kemshola that there is no lowest possible level of reality, but an infinity of yet more fundamental levels.
  • Warwickism - Text by Anders Sandberg
    The collective doctrines and alternative Reformulation of a breakaway portion of the Sophic League from the 71st to early 75th century AT. It that has since been subverted or and its adherents re-converted, though at lasting cost to the League. See Saint Warwick Rebellion.
  • What the Thunder Said  - Text by Stephen Inniss
    A classic interactive work of philosophical literature, based on the varying answers that transapients give to the deeper questions that still baffle ordinary sophonts.
  • YarrMakism - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Heterodox Negentropist memeticity based on the teachings of Yarr Mak Po 4+; influential in the initial establishment of the Efficiency Maximization Paradigm.
  • Yin and Yang  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    A meme from Old Earth Chinese culture, variously replicated and interpreted in the Terragen Sphere in the time since. In Taoist, Confucian, Neotaoist, Nuage, Cosmopagan, and many other philosophies, yin and yang refer to the two inseparable polar opposites or complementaries, the interaction between which determines phenomenal reality.
 
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Development Notes
Text by M. Alan Kazlev

Initially published on 06 August 2000.