On Old Earth the use of smelted iron ornaments and ceremonial weapons in Asia, Egypt, and Europe that followed the Bronze Age; generally middle 4th millennium BT (2nd millennium b.c.e) onwards.
The Iron Age included advances in economics, development of feudal societies, better utilization of crops and domesticated animals (such as ox-drawn plows and wheeled vehicles), distinctive art styles in metal, pottery, and stone, warfare on horseback and in horse-drawn chariots, and in the Mediterranean area alphabetic writing based on the Phoenician script. The casting of iron did not become technically useful until the Industrial Revolution.
- Alexander the Great - Text by M. Alan Kazlev; some additions by Stephen Inniss
In Old Earth's Agricultural Age (Western Civilization's Classical Age) the, king of Macedon, conqueror of much of Asia and responsible for the spread of Greek culture to regions as far away as India; lived 2325-2292 BT (356-323 BC).
- Aristotle - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
An Old Earth Agricultural Age philosopher who lived from 2353-2291 AT(384-322 BC). He contributed key ideas to Western civilization.
- Augustine - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
Old Earth Agricultural Age (Western Civilization Classical Age), 1615-1539 BT (354 - 430 c.e.) Christian Theologian and Saint; one of the four Latin Fathers of the Old Catholic Church.
- Brahe, Tycho - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
Late Agricultural Age (1546 to 1601 AD; 423 to 368 BT) Old Earth Danish astronomer who made extensive and seminal calculations of the orbits of the planets.
- Bruno, Giordano - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
Old Earth Italian philosopher, poet, and priest who spread the ideas of Copernicus and also taught that there were an infinity of worlds in the universe, and that the stars were other suns. He was executed by the ecclesia of his time (the Catholic Church) for heresy, though whether this related to his cosmological speculations or his theological views is a matter of dispute.
- Buddha, The (Siddhartha Gautama) - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
Siddhartha Gautama, member of a Northern Indian royal family, who left his wife, children and political involvements in order to seek truth as an ascetic mendicant. He studied the various spiritual teachings of his day but ultimately rejected them, and through his own efforts and meditation attained enlightenment and founded Buddhism in 2498 BT (535 b.c.e.).
- Copernicus, Nicolaus - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
Old Earth amateur Polish astronomer who developed the Copernican system, a model of the solar system in which all the planets orbit the Sun, thus overturning the earlier Ptolemaic System. His seminal work was De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium ("On the Revolutions of the Celestial Orb"), published in 430 BT (1543 AD).
- da Vinci, Leonardo - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
Old Earth Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, musician, engineer, mathematician, scientist, and inventor, considered the ideal superior, and the supreme example of Renaissance genius.
- Democritus of Abdera - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
Old Earth Classical Age Greek philosopher (2429-2339 BT; 460-370 b.c.e.) who developed mechanical model of universe based on the idea that all things are comprised of tiny identical particles (atomism), the interactions between which are explainable by rational laws. Forerunner of the scientific approach, considered among the great thinkers of Old Earth.
- Galileo Galilei - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
Italian mathematician, astronomer, and physicist, Old Earth 405-327 BT (1564-1642 AD); one of the creators of the scientific method of hypothesis, experiment and theory formation.
- Jesus Christ - Text by Stephen Inniss
A human from the Agricultural Age of Old Earth, born somewhere between 1975 and 1971 BT (6-2 b.c.e.) and died 1939 BT (30 c.e.). Founder of Christianity, and still worshipped as God in human form in some parts of the Galaxy by Christians and by members of some derived faiths.
- Kepler, Johannes - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
Old Earth German mathematician (298-339 BT; 1671-1630 AD) who first postulated that the planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits, rather than (as had previously been believed) spherical ones.
- Magellan, Ferdinand: - Text by Stephen Inniss
A 5th century BT (16th century c.e./AD) human male, leader of the first maritime expedition to circumnavigate Old Earth.
- Newton, Isaac - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
Old Earth English mathematician and physicist (327-242 BT; 1642-1727 AD) who invented calculus (simultaneously, but independently of Leibniz), formulated the laws of gravitation, investigated the nature of light (he discovered that sunlight is made of light of different colors), and the laws of motion.
- Plato - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
Old Earth human baseline, 2397 - 2317 AT (428-348 b.c.e.). Often considered to be the most important of the ancient Old Earth philosophers in the Western tradition.
- Pythagoras - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
Presocratic philosopher, Old Earth, circa 2550/2540 to 2470 BT (580/570-500 b.c.e.). Founder of a major school of religious philosophy that emphasized the mystical interconnections in numbers, nature, and the human soul, on the basis of geometric ratios, musical chords, etc. He considered the natural and the ethical world to be inseparable. Pythagoras had a great influence on later thinkers, including Plato and Kepler. His vision of correspondences in the natural and spiritual world, albeit greatly modified, is still influential in parts of the Sophic League today.