Aristotle was an Old Earth Agricultural Age Greek pre-scientific philosopher. He lived from 2353-2291 BT (384-322 BC). He was a student of Plato, who theorized about nature, astronomy, logic, metaphysics, and theology. Some of his biggest contributions to Western civilization included: the start of logic, the ideas of matter and form suggesting early information theory, attempts to catalog causality, the eudaimonian ethics as well as the systematic study of nature.

Using only philosophical speculation, Aristotle believed that the universe is spherical, finite, and centered around the Earth. Aristotle, like many others of his time, believed that the circle was the perfect shape, so the universe must be spherical, and all the orbits in it must also be circular. He believed that the universe was teleological, tending to a state of unity, and thus presaged omegist ideas. He also taught that the mundane (sublunar) world consisted of the four basic elements (earth, air, fire, water), but that the celestial bodies were composed of ether. Aristotle's ideas were adopted by the Christian Church and were not tested for over a thousand years, until Galileo's experiments demonstrated errors in Aristotle's writings. Important works include Metaphysics, De Anima, Nicomachean Ethics. Was tutor to Alexander the Great.
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Text by M. Alan Kazlev
Initially published on 07 October 2001.