Image from Chris Shaeffer
Evermore Habitats; Technical Details
|Type 1 Cylinder Technical Details||Physical Dimensions:|
Outer Diameter: 2,000.14 km
Outer Length: 10,000.14 km
Outer Circumference: 6,283.63 km
Inner Diameter: 2,000 km
Inner Length: 10,000 km
|Hull Characteristics:||Shell Thickness: 70-meters|
The shell is primarily composed of buckyfiber with a 63GPa tensile strength. This provides a 49.83% safety margin against internal pressures induced by the simulated gravity. There are thin inner and outer shells of sapphiroid to protect the buckyfiber against certain corrosive forces.
Internal Pressure on Shell: 2.21e+6 Pa
Hoop Stress: 31.61e+9 Pa
Longitudinal Stress: 15.80e+9 Pa
|Mass Breakdown:||Total: 26.46e+18 kg|
Shell: 12.93e+18 kg
Superconductor Rotation Disk: 4.52e+12 kg
Interior: 13.53e+18 kg
Crust Layer: 8.80e+18 kg
Water: 4.71e+18 kg
Angelnet: 18.85e+15 kg
Population: 34.29e+9 kg
Personal Resources: 1.71e+12 kg
|Internal Environment:||General: The internal surface area is divided into 11 bands. On either end is a band 500 km wide. Alternating between these end bands are ocean and land bands 1000 km wide.|
Total Inner Surface Area: 62,831,853 km2
Total Land Area: 31,415,926.5 km2
Total Water Area: 31,415,926.5 km2
Crust: The entire inner surface of the habitat is covered with an earthen layer 50 meters thick in order to mimic a gaian environment as closely as possible. A variety of techniques are used to combat erosion and maintain the environmental status quo. These techniques include simple design features to encourage erosion to occur a specific way, sub-surface bots and even utility fogs to reposition material. Complex structures are sometimes remanufactured utilizing the facilities located within the resource bank.
Land Bands: Topographic features are created through the use of buckytube and diamondoid structures beneath the crust layers.
Approximately 4% of the habitats environmental water supply exists as freshwater lakes, rivers and streams within these land bands.
Ocean Bands: These salt-water oceans contain 96% of the habitats environmental water supply. The oceans start at the beaches and then gently drop in a tiered shelf system to a maximum depth of 300 meters. In order to promote ocean currents, heat is strategically applied to the water at various points along the bottom.
|Weather:||Ocean Level Atmospheric Pressure: 101.325 kPa|
Weather patterns are manipulated through the strategic control of emissions from the central emitter.
The central emitter creates a slight temperature differential between the port and starboard ends of the habitat with the port end being slightly warmer. Airflow begins in the cylinders center, around the zero-g axis. The air here begins to slowly expand toward the inner surface where it picks up the habitats radial acceleration. This radial acceleration causes the air to move spinward while the temperature differentials cause it to have an additional starboard motion. The end effect is a spiraling column of air moving starboard along the core.
Once the airflow reaches the end cap it spreads, working around to the cylinder shell, picking up more radial acceleration, increasing its spinward veer and moving back towards port along the inner surface.
As the airflow accelerates it begins to move inward toward the center of the cylinder. Due to the starboard airflow along the core and the port flow along the inner shell a circular rise and fall cycle is avoided. Instead a spinward corkscrew running from starboard to port along the wall, and a helical cyclonic stream running port to starboard along the core is created. Cloud patterns can be seen to follow this corkscrew airflow.
Various topographic features, water, buildings and heat distribution can be disruptive to the main pattern of airflow creating variable cross winds and occasional minor gusting whirlwinds (i.e dust devils). Large terrain features such as mountains have been strategically placed to encourage this effect and distribute rain and other weather effects appropriately.
|Seasons||There are four seasons - summer, fall, wintwe annd spring, as controlled by the central emitter. These are dependent on the amount of energy directed into the environment.|
Summer is the first 95 days each year. Temperatures vary from 20 - 33 degrees Celsius with occasional light to medium rains.
Fall is the second season and lasts 90 days. Temperatures vary from 15 - 27 degrees Celsius.
Winter is the third season and lasts 90 days. Temperatures range from -1 degree Celsius at the heart of the season to 27 degrees Celsius nearer the beginning and end. Infrequent snowfall does occur, with 15 - 30 cm of possible accumulation.
Spring is the fourth season and lasts the remaining 90 days of the year. Temperatures vary from 15 - 27 degrees Celsius, with light to medium rainfall.
|Central Emitter:||Running the length of the cylinder core is a specialized emitter designed to mimic the radiation of a G-type star. Due to the enclosed nature of the habitat it needs only to provide an average total output of 342 watts / m2.|
Note: The angelnet blocks the view of the emitter creating an effect similar to looking up into a clear blue sky. The main difference is that the landscape of the hab can still be seen above.
This is accomplished through a mixture of diffusing the light and also controlling the image projected to those within the angelnet / ufog system.
10% Other (predominately immigrants)
Each citizen has 10,000 m2 of personal land area (100m x 100m square). The rest is used for extensive parks and commercial property.
580,000,000 AI (estimated)
The vast majority of these are dedicated systems.
|Rotation Drive||General: The cylinder rotation system is a fairly simple arrangement taking advantage of the Meissner effect in superconductors. Each cylinder end cap is covered with a thin superconductor plate. Opposing this is a permanent magnet assembly built into the ring framework. The superconductors naturally oppose the magnets and power needs only be applied to generate and maintain rotation.|
Gravity at Habitat Surface: 9.80665 m/s2 (simulated)
Characteristic Decay Time: 31,536,000 seconds
Single Rotation Time: 33.44 minutes
Rotations Per Minute: 0.0299
Outer Rim Speed: 3131.7524 m/s
Radians Per Second: 0.00313
|Radiant Heat Cogeneration System|| General: Mounted a short distance outside the actual buckytube shell is a grid work of nano-crystal thermophotovoltaic collectors, each specially aligned to the radiant wavelengths of the cylinder. These collectors completely cover the habitat shell and allow the otherwise wasted heat to be converted to electricity.|
Habitat Shell Temperature: 279.76 Kelvin
Final Radiated Temperature: 244.14 Kelvin
The central emitter radiates an averaged 342 Watts per m2 into the habitats internal environment. The environment utilizes 24.023% of this energy leaving 16.33e+15 Watts to be radiated into space as waste heat.
The central emitter also generates 1.13e+15 Watts of waste heat through the simple act of operation.
The population power allowance distribution system generates 90.24e+9 Watts of waste heat
The angelnet adds another 68.58e+10 Watts of heat to the system. Unlike the environmental waste heat that is allowed to radiate on its own, the angelnet systems utilize active cooling to direct heat out to the habitat shell.
The TPV system has a 42% conversion efficiency providing 73.32e+14 Watts of electricity that can be returned to the system.
|Power Requirements||Basic Requirement: 16.48e+18 Watts|
Rotation Drive: 16.46e+18 Watts
Central Emitter: 21.49e+15 Watts
Central Emitter Waste: 11.30e+13 Watts
Population Power Allowance: 17.14e+11 Watts
Population Waste: 90.24e+9 Watts
Angelnet: 68.57e+13 Watts
Angelnet Waste: 68.5,7e+10 Watts
Waste power is based on 95% delivery efficiency via superconductors.
Overall Power Requirement: 16.47e+18 Watts
Fuel Requirement: 183.339 kg of hydrogen per second (99.99% conversion rate)
|Caretaker Gods||Middle Regions/Hinter-regions||Negentropy Alliance|
|Non-Coercive Zone (NoCoZo)||Systems & Worlds E - F|
A World Builders Guide To Evermore
|Basics:||Units 1 Pascal = 1 Newton per meter squared.|
1 Newton = 1kg per meter per second per second.
Maximum Radius of a Cylindrical Habitat: R must be less than H / g x G
R = Radius (meters)
H = Hoop Stress (Pa) (50% of tensile strength (safety factor))
g = Acceleration of Pseudo-Gravity at Rim (m/s/s)
G = Density of Shell Material (kg/m3)
Hoop Stress: H = P x D/2 x T
H =Hoop Stress (Pascals)
P = Pressure (Pascals)
D = Internal Diameter of the Cylinder
T = Wall Thickness of the Cylinder
Longitudinal Stress: (The pressure being applied to the end caps) L = P x D/4T(2)
L = Longitudinal Stress (Pa)
P = Pressure (Pascals)
T = Wall Thickness of the Cylinder
Calculating Pressure: P = Tm / A x g
P = Pressure (Pa)
Tm = Total Mass (kg)
A = Area (m2)
g = Pseudo Gravity (m/s/s)
Calculating Artificial Gravity: g = 0.011 x Cr2 x Cd
Cd = g / (0.011 x Cr2)
Cr = sqrt (g / (0.011 x Cd))
g = centrifugal gravity acceleration at point X (m/s/s)
Cd = Distance of point X from center of rotation (m)
Cr = Rotation rate at point X (rotations per minute)
Centrifugal Force Simulated Gravity
Heat Dissipation Capability:
Wh = Re x (5.67x10e-8) Ra x Rt4
Wh = Waste Heat (watts)
Re = Emissivity of Radiator (based on the material utilized)
Ra = Area of Radiator (m2)
Rt = Temperature of Radiator (Kelvin)
Energy Requirements to Maintain Spin:
NOTE:= A free-spinning cylinder in zero-g would have a very long characteristic decay time.
P = -dK/dt (t=0) = 2 M R2 omega02/tau
P = Power (Joules)
-dK/dt = Rate at which kinetic energy is being lost (The amount of power needed to keep the cylinder spinning at omega0 is just the negative of the rate at which energy is being lost (you are adding that much energy back in))
t = Time
M = Mass (kg)
R = Radius (m)
omega0 = Initial spin velocity at t=0
tau = Characteristic decay time
Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superconducting_magnetic_energy_storage