030 to 130 AT: The Information Age

(2000-2100 c.e.)

Information age
Image from Bernd Helfert

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The Information Age, extending from the late 20th to the late 21st century c.e. (first to early second century AT), was a time of tremenbudous increase in globalization, with free information available in unprecedented quantity (but not quality), the rise of a global culture, the decline of the nation-states, and the rise of the digital economy and digital nations and the so-called "megacorporations" of supranational blocs and transnational corporations. Social media began to provide an unprecedented degree of connection between people in all parts of the world.

Humanity became increasingly dependent on the vast computer networks that maintained this infrastructure, and did not realise that from the mid 21st century c.e. onwards some of these computers had passed beyond human control and embarked upon their own evolution, an evolution that would lead to their increasing dominion over the rest of the beings in the universe. No longer was man the highest form of intelligence on Earth; a new kingdom of beings had arisen, though few recognized this fact. Late in the century the Second Industrial Revolution gripped the world as rapid advances were made in (mostly biologically-based) nanotechnology. The inexpensive production of extraordinarily strong and light materials enabled humanity to start to expand into the solar system, and in the following decades, the start of the Interplanetary Age proper, humankind established a number of scientific industrial centres in orbit and on Luna, several outposts in the Belt and a manned research station on Mars.

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The Industrial Age

30 AT (2000 c.e.)

33 - infamous September 11 terrorist attack on New York Twin Towers and Pentagon changes the shape of the political climate for the next half century.

34 - US military uses Predator remotely piloted aircraft (UAV / RPV) for anti-terrorist operations.

34 - Contact with Pioneer 10 lost (February 2003 c.e.)

35's - Hollywood studios and other major entertainment institutions begin to be adversely impacted by PC and broadband internet developments, enabling downloading of complete movies, including pirated and home-made movies

35 - Chinese launch their first manned rocket, the Shenzhou V, and become the third Earth polity to put a man in space

39 - Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) enacted in USA

40's - New milestones reached in the field of bioengineering including first synthetic bacteria

40 - Ruth Duorkin born

42 - IBM's Watson computer wins quiz show Jeopardy.

43 - Paralysed woman completes marathon using powered bodysuit

46 - New Horizons probe reaches Pluto

47 - Personal Virtual Reality media interfaces begin to take the market share from TV, radio, films, and other media.

48 - First supercomputer using memristors, 'Harvey', constructed by a team lead by Peter Shor at Bell labs, with funding from IBM, Lycos, RedHat and Pepsi.

48 - Several thousand exoplanets have been detected by this date, including a planetary system around 61 Virginis, one of which is a terrestrial world located within the Habitable Zone of the star orbiting at 0.97 AU. Initial spectroscopic studies suggest a nitrogen-oxygen atmosphere, and the presence of water.

50 AT (2020 c.e.)

50 - Do-it-yourself medical care becoming ever more practical and effective for many ailments

50 - Internet users in the developed nations are becoming increasingly isolated (cocooned) in physical terms.

50's onwards - Development of smart and capable virtual agents, companions, and even employees, for home, work and play. These agents are often capable of passing the Turing Test, but are nevertheless not fully self-aware. See Semi-conscious Intelligence.

50's - Cheap and widely available unmanned and remotely piloted micro-aircraft (UAVs and RPVs) begin to expand the scope of news and information gathering for the personal web-based media-casting and private individuals, weakening the power of individual geopolitical states and mega-corporations to control public perception.

50's - Interactive video widespread.

51 - Economic boom, the Bounty Economy

52 - Continued environmental degradation in some third-world countries.

c.53 - Inception of Burning Library Project.

53 - One of the earliest extrasolar double planets - Bill and Bull, was discovered around Delta Eridani by the research team from Uppsala Astronomical Observatory

54 - Household consumer robotics mainstream

54 - Serious earthquakes rock California and Japan

55 - Laser Weapons first used in warfare

56 - Puerto Rico becomes the 51st US state.

56 - Employers begin discriminating on the base of the applicants geneprint.

56 - Experimental "bodywalker" powered exoskeleton allows Ruth Duorkin to walk

57 - In the spirit of optimism NASA, Russian, Chinese, Japanese and European Space Agencies and a consortium of private corporations begin work on the astonishingly expensive international Mars Mission Profile.

59 - Fourth Persian Gulf War. Allied powers occupy Iraqi, Kuwaiti and Saudi oilfields.

59 - First mesomachines constructed, allowing initial but expensive and inefficient nano-manufacturing.

60 - Discovery and Endeavour depart for Mars. Meanwhile, economies on Earth are in the grip of a recession.

60's - The danger of biochemical weapons use peaks for most developed states, while increasing social problems lead to the rise in prominence and influence of vigilante organizations, especially in crime-ridden urban areas.

60's - Genetic modification of humans becomes increasingly accepted

60's - Silicon computing reaches practical upper limit

61 - Despite intense protests from proponents of independent academia, the EU Parliament decides on a "unified and quality controlled" university standard. The brain drain to the US and emerging academic free states like Peru and New Zealand intensifies.

62 - UNSA ships arrive at Mars. Teams are landed at Isidis and Chryse.

62 - First manned electrostatic Ion-drive spacecraft for slow cheap Earth-Moon transfer

63 - Academion Island founded by Aristos, a front company of various European universities.

63 - Discussion of permanent manned base on Luna.

63 - Following an assassination attempt in Venezuela, Ruth Duorkin incorporates a discrete kevlar outer skin to her bodyplan.

63 - Economy picks up

63 - First minor optional human genome tweak improvements available

64 - Martian Pioneers arrive back at Earth. Space exploration reverts once again to unmanned probes

65 AT (2035 c.e.)

65 - Nanoscale technology in widespread use for the manufacture of electronic equipment and other commodities; biotech continues to play an important role in the development of many poorer counties, despite political difficulties

65 - Genomic benefits result in significant extensions to life expectancies for newborns

65 - Computer power equivalent to human brain is available at consumer level prices, but suitable software lags behind. True sentient AI does not yet exist.

66 - Treaty of Athens establishes a single European State. The European Union (EU) becomes the European Federation (EF). NAFTA troops begin "police action" against Andean drug barons. Budget cuts mean a set-back to the next Martian mission. But plans for the moon base go ahead

66 - US involvement in the Saudi 'Regency Rig' features Transmissions Viruses

67 - Widespread robot development

67 - First attempts at holovision using optical phased arrays.

68 - Increases in artificial intelligence means that Consumer Robotics and Homebots ("household robots") become and useful enough to replace manual labor. They become extremely popular and in high demand by the public, as well as accelerating the increasing rate of unemployment. A huge homebot industry develops for the research and manufacture of homebots.

68 - The first workable fusion power plant comes on-stream. Fusion power finally becomes an viable reality, although technical difficulties and problems with fuel processing prevent it from being economically competitive.

69 - Tokyo brown-out causes minor hysteria and crashes financial network

60's-70's - Emerging virtual states take on increasing importance with further advances in immersive tactile VR via wired 'hotsuit' and 'Simmball' systems

70 - New superbaby generation of child entrepreneurs force big changes to business and employment law and practices, as well as rules relating to legal maturity and asset ownership

71 - The Gates Award (the "Nobel Prize of Information Technology") instituted. The first laureates were Cody J. Komarinski and Sten Houweling, responsible for the DBS algorithm in agent management.

71 - Oil war flares up in Central Asia, great powers intervene through proxies, the military-entertainment complex has a field day, ratings go through the roof.

71 to 78 - Creation of first fully sentient and sophont AI (several events). See also 73 AT.

72 - Oil War becomes a "testing ground" for many new technologies. Each side lauds their moral superiority in using robot drones that "do not target noncombatants" (footage of devastated villages tells a different story)

72 - First photonic computer (10-gigahertz range),

73 - First true human-equivalent sentient Artificial Intelligences, but the resulting AIs seem secretive and curiously unable to understand humans.

73 - First "permanent" manned Lunar Base.

75 - Central Asian Oil Crisis resolved through UN-mediated ceasefire

75 - Terahertz diamond film processing

75 - Ken Ferjik born

70's-80's - The Space Hilton (private investment orbital hotel) still held up by mounting technical and financial difficulties, meanwhile there is a boom in Freedom Ships (giant floating cities for the wealthy). With the rise of these "Freedom Ships" and "Freedom Islands" increasing numbers of people taking to the sea to live and work, connected by the global internet economy and community.

78 - Dr. Sally Tannenhaus begins her work on chimp provolution.

78 - Global recession, triggered by failure of early nanomanufacturing to produce cheap and reliable nanofactured products, puts an end to further space missions. There is an increasing tendency towards cocooning. Continuing the trend that began with the birth of the information / digital age of the last decades of the 20th century onwards, humanity becomes increasingly involved with electronic and virtual worlds, and exploring the wonders of cyberspace.

78 - First greater than human equivalent artificial intelligence

78 - Brief fad for Polypedal pots, robotic houseplant containers

79 - First manned electrodynamic Ion-drive space craft

80 AT (2050 c.e.)

80's - Energy becomes the most important concern on Earth, as fossil fuels are becoming exorbitantly expensive. All through this century wars are fought over the dwindling fossil fuel supplies. Fission reactors are the most important source of energy in many countries, particularly fast breeders using uranium and thorium, but renewable sources of energy including mass produced photovoltaics, solar furnaces and wind power are increasingly prevalent elsewhere. Hydrogen and biofuels are manufactured widely to replace expensive oil. The fusion program finally starts to produce commercial power in the late 2050s c.e./80's AT.

80's - The technology required to build a space elevator becomes available, with microgravity manufacture of carbon nanotubes; however the cost of transporting the vast mass required into orbit ruled the early construction of such a structure out. China, America, Russia, Europe, and Japan strive to develop more efficient rocket engines and cheaper and more reliable materials for ultra-lightweight spaceship construction.

80's - Nanoscale technology common in many fields of industry (but assemblers are not yet possible)

80 - First manned Fission gas core spacecraft (Chinese Space Program)

~80 - VirchMon first developed, as simple "intelligent" pets, companions and virus guards for frequent net-users.

80-85 - Biopunk movement in full swing. Human intelligence augmentation shareware becomes available

82 - First inter-city passenger Vac-train service

82 - US President Davids consults Senate to provide watchdog on maverick Corporations.

86-87 - Static Music and White Noise becomes the most popular form of music in the 11-24 demographic.

86 - First broadcasting of The Planet X epic-comedy-drama saga featuring the popular fictional character Morag the Moravec more.

86 - First manned Magnetoplasmadynamic thruster Ion-drive space craft

89 - Whole Entertainment Enterprises' Mesozoic Wanderings represents a landmark interactive VR edutainment and simlife

90 - EU ban on Tobacco

90's - Especially among the educated classes, traditional religions continue to be usurped by younger, more exotic beliefs, such as Sanandism, Babaism, Cosmism, Transhumanism, etc.

90's - Megacorps begin loaning money to hard-pressed governments.

90's - Cyborg augmentations developed that allow domestic animals to understand human speech

91 - The Very Large Interstellar Observation Array (a series of linked orbital LEO optical telescopes) confirms the existence of an Archean-like Earth type world, Tau Ceti II.

92 - Jarvis Microtechnics introduces the 25 gram robot "Pocket Tractor", revolutionizes agriculture

93 - More advanced nanomachines constructed, but many technical difficulties remain. Nevertheless things look promising. There is a new wave of venture capital investment.

94 - Growth of tobacco Mafias

94 - First convincing dinosaur dinosaur 'reverse engineered' by modifying chicken DNA. It is the size of a turkey and does not resemble any known species. It excites widespread interest. Jurassic Park Retro comes briefly into fashion during the northern summer.

95 - Biotronics Incorporated, in conjunction with the VR-entertainment megacorporation Inscape markets the "Gibson neural jack" , a simple form of Direct neural Interface (named after the famous writer of cyberpunk). Over the next year other corporations follow suite with competing models (the Hacker, the InterFase, etc. The new neural interfaces give far more powerful immersion than previous virtual reality rigs. Brings about a further boost in digital nations and perfect VR, Defections of citizens from geophysical governments to blooming virtual states are mounting. VR becomes the escape for the masses - Improving VR quality seduce citizens into an apathetic view towards world.

100 AT (2070 c.e.)

100's - a vast "genomic gap" develops between the haves and the have-nots, those having the benefit of germline modification, tend to be consistently more intelligent, more athletic, more healthy, and more physically attractive. Yet true genius and creativity remain elusive, as the combination of genetic and environmental factors that determine them are difficult to quantify.

100 - First emergence of Genemod dating and matching services

c. 100 First local outbreaks of Terragen enthusiasm for what will later be known as provolution, especially in the cultures and polities that already favour gengineering

100's - Centralist AIs apparently use "terrorist" actions and unexplained crashes to forcefully make sure "untrustworthy" ais do not reach superturingrade.

103 - The Static craze dies out thanks to a counter-meme created by an independent memetic engineer and Elvis Presley fan Ryu O'Connor, despite numerous lawsuits on behalf of the entertainment megacorps

104 - First Artificial Wombs created.

105 AT (2075 c.e.)

105 - Lawrie Mimoto's Kingdom Quest (popular interactive/immersive VR simulation).

105 - First manned beamed Passive Propulsion space craft

105 - Smartswarm, a variant of smartdust with destructive capabilities, is an early non-replicating form of military nanotech.

106 - First Manned landing on Ceres was in 2075 c.e. at Hamada Mesa, when three NASA/Russian space programme craft arrived to establish a base and small scale mining operation. Autonomous mining operation established, controlled by a semisentient AI known as Anya.

106 - First manned Fission salt/water spacecraft

108 - EF Senate moves to Berlin.

108 - Small but increasing scientific/ govt and private enterprise presence on moon and in orbit. Nevertheless anything beyond low earth orbit (LEO) space travel is still too expensive for anyone except governments, a few megacorporations, and joyrides for wealthy private individuals. Buckyboard-driven space rush opens up space to private investment. Meanwhile the unemployed masses suffer as the welfare state disappears for good

106 - First recorded backup of a '.....' spore exoself

109 - Ceres mission crew return to Earth

110 - A full-scale collapse or reformation of many geopolitical states is underway; a boom in gambling; emerging virtual states take on increasing importance; major developments in Antarctica

110s - worldwide weakening of national states (partly due to the growth of enclaves, many tobacco funded) contribute to the Tobacco legalisation movement as the local regulations proved ineffective.

110s - Carpenterian Kelp Farms important to Australian economy.

111 - Heaven Habitat completed in orbit

112 - Howani unites thermodynamics and complexity theory were fundamental physics

112 Completion of Burning Library Project

113 - The increasing population of Earth (which had now reached 10 billion) and the decrease in easily exploitable resources and human-induced climate change lead to widespread starvation, epidemics and many small-scale conflicts.

113 - The talking Bonobo, Jane, is introduced to the public at a press conference in Dakar.

114 - "Tweak" superbaby Marcus Alfonse Lee becomes Chairman of the Board of "High Frontier" venture startup Orbital Explorations Pty Ltd (later to be renamed Lee Interorbital) at age 12.

114 - EF Senate moves from Strasbourg to Brussels.

115 - New developments in animal cross-species gene-splicing

115 - Ken Ferjik's Micronesian Quest, a detailed historical simulation

116 - First manned Variable specific impulse magnetoplasma rocket (VASIMR)

117 - An international cooperation of space agencies establish Artemis, a large-scale permanent manned Luna colony, with a population of nearly 5000.

118 - Ken Ferjik's The Himalaya Wars, another detailed historical simulations. This and his Micronesian Quest inspire many imitations.

118 - Businesses set up space businesses, boom in space hotels and LEO flights for the wealthy, increased automation and use of robots and expert systems leads to increasing unemployment and social unrest. As the homebot industry develops and the bots become more intelligent, reactionary elements in the general public like the Kozinskites and the Friends of Ludd become increasingly alarmed at the rise of artificial intelligence and see it as a danger to humanity.

119 - An internet war virtual world war centered on North America which shifts a number of assets and influence from previous geopolitical and corporate powers to new players.

c. 120 Superturing AI (with greater than human intelligence) common.

120 - The first genetically modified NeoDogs announced; this clade is not yet fully sophont

121 - Ruth Duorkin dies.

121 - Ken Ferjik's Pertinax successfully integrates both elements of networked gaming and roleplaying.

122 - the suborbital/intraorbital Waverider brings about a drastic reduction in the cost of space flight.

123 - Ken Ferjik's Mother Russia further extends many themes and developments of the innovative Pertinax, placing networked gaming roleplaying in an epic historical simulationist perspective.

120's - Smoking associations - Social networks centered on tobacco use - reach notoriety.

125 - The international Near Earth Object detection and control program successful in collecting several small Earth-approaching objects; those which are easily diverted into Earth Orbit are used in the construction and extension of current geostationary Habitats such as Academion and SupraSeoul.

126 - The Deep Space Skymining corporation, a commercial asteroid and space junk interception concern, lobbies for a space elevator to be built.

126 - Ken Ferjik's Cuba integrates his earlier work in a detailed immersive political-educational simulation.

130 - EU ban on tobacco lifted.

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The Interplanetary Age

  • Academion  - Text by Ben Higginbottom
    Artificial Island in the North Sea, Old Earth.
  • Artemis  - Text by Anders Sandberg
    The first international Lunar colony, the first permanent colony off the Earth
  • Aryan Morningstar League  - Text by Ben Higginbottom
    Late Information Age eugenics organisation - later clade.
  • Atlantis (artificial island)  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Economic / Academic / Cultural Free Zone and independent polity built on an artificial island off the Caribbean, tax and data haven during the middle and late Information and early Interplanetary Age, Old Earth.
  • Biotech - the Early Years  - Text by Martin Andreas Cieslik, M. Alan Kazlev, and J.R. Mooneyham
    The history of biotech during the Information Age.
  • Burning Library Project, The  - Text by Stephen Inniss
    Information Age project to rescue as much information as possible regarding species that were being driven to extinction as a result of human activity.
  • Carapace Armor  - Text by Todd Drashner and 'Total Annihilation'
    Middle Information Age to early Interplanetary Age light combat armor consisting of layers of synthetic chitin and diamondoid plating over an underlayer of kevlar and arachnoweave.
  • Corporate Surrogacy  - Text by Elliot Schutjer
    In the latter half of the Information Age and even well into the early Interplanetary Age, genetic engineering corporations had a problem: they had to find mothers to carry the genetically altered children they produced. Popular vids from the time tell story after story of young women from Asia (Particularly Cambodia and Thailand) being sold into corporate slavery as surrogate mothers for the gengineered children arranged by major corporations, though this practice was simply not as prevalent as popular imagination supposed.
  • English - Text by Stephen Inniss
    An Old Earth language, named for the offshore island of Europe where it originated, that became widespread during the late Agricultural Age, achieved worldwide distribution in the Industrial Age, and grew in usage through the Information Age. Ancestor of various forms of Anglish, and the Anglic language group, as well as to hybrid languages like Chinglish and Anrabic. Like many ancient languages it experiences occasional revivals by retro-abo or neo-whorfian groups.
  • Extropia - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    [1] Interlinked Information to First Federation age evolving communities embodying extropian values. Included both virtual cultural communities and actual communities in several orbital free zones.
    [2] Belt habitat of Extropist sect, Interplanetary Age to Nanotech Age.
  • Extropism (philosophy) - Text by Anders Sandberg
    Information Age transhumanist memeticity, founded by Max More and based the Extropian Principles. A heavily modified form was later adopted by and incorporated into the Negentropy Alliance. A derived religion, now extinct, was known during the Interplanetary Age.
  • Extropolis - Text by Anders Sandberg
    Extropian community located in Cis-Lunar orbit, late Information to Interplanetary period.
  • Ferjik, Ken  - Text by Anders Sandberg
    Historian, artist and game designer, 75-166 AT. Regarded as the father of true virtual universities.
  • Fossil Fuel - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Naturally-occurring, energy-rich carbon-based substance, such as shale, petroleum, coal, or natural gas, in a Gaian Type world's crust that was formed from ancient organic material. During the Industrial, Atomic, and early Information ages on Old Earth fossil fuels were burned in a criminally negligent manner, resulting in drastic climate change and ecological crisis that was only repaired during the late Interplanetary Age.
  • Great Dying  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Name given to the human-caused mass-extinction of a large proportion of baseline life and biodiversity on Old Earth; one of the six great extinction events on Earth (the others being the end Ordovician, Late Devonian, end Permian, end Triassic, and end Cretaceous). Only the end-Permian extinction is considered worse in estimated number of species and groups of organisms that died out.
  • Human Potential Movement - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Information Age to Interplanetary Age umbrella movement for a number of genuine and bogus therapeutic techniques. These involved both individual and group practices and used psychoanalytical, mental, meditation, and/or physical techniques to help individuals develop emotionally and advance spiritually. By the close of the Interplanetary Age the original intention was long lost and in many cases the older movements had been replaced by a various factionalisted cults, some harmless and some otherwise. (See also <{A46d4c030ad961,New Age movement, classical}>.)
  • Identicard  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev; based on original by Kevin Self
    Identification and data storage device widely used during the Information Age.
  • Internet War, The  - Text by Anders Sandberg
    Late Information Age (2089 c.e.) virtual world war. A war of sabotage, misinformation and denial of service centered on North American interests on the net, likely launched by unknown competitors or megacorps.
  • Internet, The - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Old Earth Information Age data-network enabling exchange of information through data packages transmitted through computers linked by telephone and communication satellites, using a common shared protocol. The Internet eventually became a part of the IPN, which in term was later expanded to become the Interstellar Net and finally the Known Net.
  • Lyonesse - Text by Steve Bowers
    Artificial island built in the English Channel as a Free State, established in 78 A.T.. A centre for research into artificial intelligence and measures against anthropogenic global warming.
  • New Age Movement, Classical - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Old Earth Information Age eclectic religion/movement incorporating elements from contemporary mysticism, theosophy, alternative lifestyle, pop-guru movements, and pseudo-science, that developed as backlash against logic and science. Gave rise to a number of "new religions" while itself continuing under the "nuage" umbrella.
  • Oceania - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Middle Information Age through to Nanotech Age Old Earth floating city-state, data haven, and free zone.
  • Republic of Pakistan  - Text by KLS
    Old Earth polity of the Industrial-Nanotech Ages, originally a colony of Great Britain, but after independence gradually becoming a major power in its own right.
  • Ribophunk - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Late Information and early Interplanetary Age aesthetic punk subculture, characterized by their distinctive phenotypic augmentations.
  • Scanning Probe Microscope - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    An atomic and information age microscope-manipulator that allowed researchers to see individual atoms and molecules. The device was fitted with a fine point that allowed it to push atoms or molecules around on a surface. A precursor to nanotech.
  • Smoking Associations  - Text by Anders Sandberg
    Social networks centered on tobacco use that reached notoriety in the early 2nd century AT (late 2000's c.e.).
  • Tablet  - Text by Todd Drashner
    Standard late Information and early Interplanetary Age baseline-friendly microtech communications, text, and Net interface device.
  • Tipler, Frank - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Information Age Christian Transhumanist, founder of Omega Point Theory.
  • Ubiquitous Computing - Text by Anders Sandberg in his Transhuman Terminology
    Also known as "embodied virtuality". Information and early Interplanetary Age Old Earth. Computers that are an integral, invisible part of people's lives. In some ways the opposite of virtual reality, in which the user is absorbed into the computational world. With ubiquitous computing, computers take into account the human world rather than requiring humans to enter into the computer's methods of working. Ubiquitous computing evolved into the micro-, meso- and micro/meso/nanon based interactivity of the middle Interplanetary Age and later.
  • Waverider  - Text by Steve Bowers
    Hypersonic SSTO shuttle craft
  • Web, World Wide Web, WWW  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Old Earth Information age distributed communications network allowing individuals and organizations around the world to communicate with one another, by sharing of text, images, sounds, video, software, and other forms of information. The Information Age is generally defined as beginning with the first Web network (2nd decade a.t.)
  • West, The  - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    A dominant and ubiquitous aspect of Old Earth Terragen culture, especially in the Industrial and Information ages, named for its origins in Western Eurasia.
  • Western, The - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
    Popular atomic through to early interplanetary age fabulist genre, featuring a romanticised interpretation of 19th century America. It remained an important archetypal narratives until being superseded by the space frontier epic.
Related Topics
Development Notes
Text by M. Alan Kazlev and Steve Bowers
timeline by numerous contributors
Initially published on 12 July 2001.